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Up for auction are 51 softcover manuals from the Cleveland Institute of Electronics that have been bound in 2 books. This was a home study course dated 1969. The following manual titles are included (In Order): *The Electricity Around You. *Electricity At Work. *Electrons in Action. *How Electric Circuits Work. *Basic Circuit Tracing. *Putting Formulas to Work. *Series and Parallel D-C Circuits. *Roots, Proportion, and Negative Numbers. *Voltage, Current, and Resistance in D-C Circuits. *Inductance and Capacitance. *Tracking through Decision-Making Circuits. *Easy Ways of Figuring Electronic Problems. *Alternating- Current Circuits. *Applied Magnetism and Practical Capacitors. *How Tubes and Transistors Amplify. *Using Curves and Phasers. *Operations of Tubes and Transistors. *Simplifing Circuit Analysis by Using Kirchhoff's Laws. *Currents and Voltages in A-C Circuits. *Resonant Circuits. *Amplifier Circuitry. *Audio Amplifiers and Equipment. *Using Semiconductor Diodes. *Operation of Semiconductor Devices. *Radio Frequency Amplifiers. *Oscillators. *Untuned Amplifier Circuitry. *How to Work With Transistors. *Theory of Power Supplies. *Improving Your Understanding of Tuned Stage Operation. *Modern Modulation Methods. *Frequency Modulation. Detection and Frequency Conversion. *Measuring and Measuring Instruments. *Systematic Troubleshooting. *Transmission Lines and Waveguides. *Antennas and Wave Propagation. *Receiving Equipment. *Transmitters. *R-F Amplifier Analysis. *Suppressed Carrier Modulation and Single Sideband Transmission. *Batteries, Control Motors, and Other Power Sources. *Installing, Troubleshooting, and Maintaining Two Way Mobile Equipment -Part ONE. * Your Progress Review- and FCC License Check- Part I, II, III, IV, V. * Your Progress Review- and FCC License Check- Elements I & II. Pointers and Practice for Passing FCC Second Class Examination. Condition is very good. There may be a small amount of writing in a few of them. I have not personally looked at each page. *Actual Media Rate shipping will be charged. Insurance optional and highly suggested.

All shipping rates quoted are rates within the United States. All International buyers, please email before paying for shipping rates. NO SURFACE MAIL IS AVAILABLE DUE TO POSTAL RATE INCREASE.


This is all you need to become a piano tuner/technician. Included is the Peter Summers Piano Tuning and Repair for Profit manuals and CD. I bought this course in January and never completed. It is easy to understand and learn. Also included is a complete tool kit which includes:

  1. Tuning lever with extra long tuning head
  2. Rubber string mute
  3. Wool "temperament" strip
  4. C523.3 tuning fork
  5. Combination tool handle
  6. Action flange screwdriver
  7. Drop screw regulator
  8. Center pin punch
  9. Regulating screw adjuster
  10. Regulating tool
  11. Special shank drill bit
  12. Key bushing clamps
  13. Flange screw holder
  14. Set of six tweezers
  15. Aluminum Case

The spare parts list is: 1 pk. spring clip bridle tapes, 100-upright hammer shanks, hammer shank repair sleeves, 500-B/R punchings, reg. button punch, white action cloth, 12-UR bass damper wedges Single, 12-UR Bass damper wedges Double, 12- UR bass damper wedges trichord, 100-damper flange screws, 2-upright damper butts w/flanges, 2-damper levers for UR, 2- damper levers for Spinets, 2-brass repair clips type A, 2 brass repir clips type B, 1-brass repair clip type KA, 2-brass repir clips type KB, 12-hammer butt springs, 100-UR jack springs, 12-damper repir springs for UR, 2-brass rail butts, 3-UR damper heads, 3-butt and whippen flanges, 2-adjustable stickers, 12-plastic elbows, 10-single hammers not bored, Pre-filled wooden pin holder, 12-jiffy leads.

I paid over $600 for the Peter Summers course and tools and spare parts. This is an inexpensive way to start your own tuning/repair biz.

Shipping is $19.50 anywhere USA.

C - 261.6       C# - 277.2         D - 293.7        D# - 311.1        E - 329.6       F - 349.2      F# - 370          G - 392        G# - 415.3        A - 440        A# - 466.2       B - 493.9      C - 523.3

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Steps

Unison Tuning - tuning of the two or three strings which form a single note and how they are tuned with one another, the basis or foundation of tuning.

Octave Tuning - tuning of two notes that are an Octave apart - all of the A's, B's, etc., about intervals and the relationship one note has to another, the 12 notes of the piano keyboard.

Equal Temperament - set one group of notes, which forms the basis for tuning all the remaining notes. A standard tuning fork sets the standard for the entire piano.

Treble Section - requires some special training after completing the above four tunings.  The bass notes are useful in the tuning of these notes.

Regulation - smooth action of  the moving parts of a piano must be properly adjusted and regulated. Different types of pianos have different types of actions.
Actions include the Spinet, Upright, Drop and Grand. Replacement of key felts and leveling of the key board are necessary. Basic regulating tools are required.

Repairs - parts wear out and sometimes break or suffer moth damage such as worn felts, broken keys, broken strings and other damage and wear.
The moving parts of a piano action are attached to a flange which is a combination of metal pins pivoting in felt, requiring the replacement of this felt or rebushing.

Special Repairs -  major repairs such as complete restringing, sound board repairs and felt hammer replacement. Voicing of the felt hammers may be required.


More 

Piano Tuning standards have taken a Quantum leap during the past 30 years.  The subject here is Equal Temperament (ET).
Tuning standards have advanced in recent times principally because of  Electronic Tuning Devices (ETD).

Unfortunately  many technicians today learn to tune with an ETD first rather than by ear. They may have a good sense of what sounds ideal
and can tune beautiful unisons but sadly, have no concept of how to construct a temperament by ear. 

Aural Tuning is not exactly counting beats.  Aural Tuning can be described most simply as the perception and control of beats.
It is not really necessary to count them or even to compare them with any timing device such as a  watch or metronome.
If you are a beginner or someone who can only tune with an ETD, you will have to practice; there is no way around or substitute for it.
You must learn to hear and control the beats of the various intervals used in tuning.

Today:
12 Tone Equal Temperament – where every pair of adjacent notes has an identical frequency ratio. One octave (12 notes) is divided into 12 logarithmically equal parts.

The 12 Tone Equal Temperament is, in fact, a compromise (not one interval in any key is technically “in tune” mathematically or aurally); but it is one that serves every key equally. The consonance and dissonance inherent in C major is geometrically and aurally identical to the consonance and dissonance inherent in Eb major – or any other key in Equal Temperament.

Past:
The Aural Tradition style of piano tuning, takes into account all of the psycho acoustic phenomena (how we perceive sound) and inherent physical limitations (such as string inharmonic) that surround the imperfect beast that we call the piano.



Piano tuning is a surprisingly simple, yet clothed in mystery by those "in the know."   However, not complicated, piano tuning does require patience, a good ear and practice.
Moreover, the piano is a complex instrument; if you are careless in your tuning attempts, you can damage it. Keep in mind that professional piano tuners spend years learning, will be more 
efficient, can make repairs, and will be better than the novice at bringing out the full tonal beauty of the instrument.

Between professional tunings, those who experiment, even a quick fix, or a really out-of-tune piano that has been neglected for years may need a pitch-raise.
Raising the pitch means to bring the piano sound board back into the universal pitch to which all pianos should be tuned. Essentially, the tuner does an extra rough tuning, maybe taking
several passes until everything is in shape. 

MINIMUM PIANO TUNING TOOLS
!* Rubber tuning wedges or "mutes" made for piano tuning. Assorted sizes come in handy. I use the ones with a wire handle, especially. You'll need at least two 
rubber wedge mutes to get started. Several other kinds of mutes are available for muting whole ranges of strings and muting just the middle of three strings. 
You may find these useful as you gain skill.
!* Tuning hammer or lever (actually a specialized wrench to turn the string pins)
!* Electronic tuner. Korg Chromatic Tuner, model CA-30,using a tuning fork is not easy.
!*`Light source to shine into the piano.

PIANO TUNING PROCEDURE
#1. Clear the room.
#2. Start with the middle octave (Middle C on up to C'). Each piano key strikes one to three strings. Pick one string to tune at a time; if there are three 
strings, start with the middle. Carefully find the pin that turns the string you want to tune. Stick the rubber wedges in to stop the vibration of the other one 
or two strings in the set. While repeatedly striking the piano key HARD, turn the pin until the electronic tuner shows that it's in tune. The Korg CA-30 
automatically detects the note you are trying to reach. If you are really off, it may show the wrong note, so make sure you know what you are looking for. 
Tips about this process:
Proceed slowly, because stretching a string too quickly can break it, especially an old string. If the string is really far out, you may want to 
tune it in several steps, allowing it to rest a few minutes between turns. (Thanks to a reader for pointing this out.) 
Take care turning the pin. Twist it without bending it. TIP: Loosen the tension first before tightening, just in case you are on the wrong string! 
Over tightening can break the string. 
Hitting the key hard is important. If you tune by playing softly, the piano will go out of tune as soon as someone plays it hard. Hitting hard "sets" the 
strings so you know it will stay in tune when you step away. 
#3. After the first string is tuned, move the wedges so that the first string and the second string are free, but the third, if present, is still dampened by the 
wedge. Ignore the tuner. Just put your wrench on the second string's pin. While repeatedly striking the key hard, turn the second pin until you can hear no more 
"beats"--that is, it sounds like one note, not two in disharmony. Repeat for the third, with all wedges removed. (Alternatively, you could tune all the strings 
in a key's set with the electronic tuner, but that's not as easy as you might think. Getting that little indicator to line up just right becomes tedious fast. 
Using your ear to tune the strings to each other is faster and will sound better.)
#4. Repeat for each key, and there you are--a tuned piano! At the extreme octaves high and low, though, my tuner has difficulty "hearing" the note. In these 
cases, I had to tune by ear, that is, comparing a tuned key in a nearby octave to the suspect key. Hit both at the same time, then tune the target string by 
listening for disharmony beats. A better tuner, or maybe a remote contact mike might help. (Korg has a contact mike, CM-100, for the CA-30.)
Technical Side note: Ideally, you should just tune the middle octave with the tuner, then tune all the higher and lower registers by ear. In fact, a purist 
professional tuner may just tune the "A" with a fork and tune the rest by ear! It is difficult to match precisely the electronic tuner consistently. Also note 
that the only truly universal note all pianos share is A (above middle C) equals 440 Hz. From there a professional tuner essentially tunes the piano to itself 
(though he may use electronic aids and software to calculate the precise frequencies) because the vibration rate for other notes, particularly on the 
extreme octaves, may be in tune outside of the expected mathematical progression. This is so because of the differences in structure and materials 
among pianos. However, I went with the electronic tuner (for the first string in each note) whenever I could and it turned out OK. 
One last tip: As you tune, it is impossible to hit dead on the frequency each time. So, if in doubt, tune a shade sharp. Pianos generally go out of tune to 
the flat, not the sharp, so you'll be a little ahead of the game, plus you'll get a "brighter" sound. A good piano tuner will actually tune the middle 
register a little sharp on purpose, because the process of tuning the high and low registers can flat the middle sometimes. (Fast explanation: All those 
strings put a lot of tension on the sound board. As you work your way to the ends of the keyboard, the resulting tension changes can subtly alter the shape 
of the sound board, reducing the tension on the middle octaves, causing the middle octaves to flat.) If you tune the middle a little sharp, by the time you 
finish the upper and lower, the middle will, in theory, be in tune. How long will this take? That's extremely variable. Make of the piano, how badly 
out of tune it is, how good your ear is, etc. The first time you do it, it may take an hour to get through that first octave. Once you get the hang of it, I 
estimate that a careful tuning takes about 20 minutes an octave.

How do you keep a piano from getting out of tune? keep it tuned! The more strings left not tuned, the more the tension changes on the soundboard,
causing a cascade effect where more and more strings to go out of tune.

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